Environmental and climate data

Efficient use of resources

Castellum’s efforts to reduce the company’s climate impact are ambitious, and are in progress throughout operations. The ambition of working efficiently to develop a more sustainable property portfolio has been a goal of the company since the mid-1990s. This work has yielded results, and Castellum is now among the most sustainable companies in the industry.

To future-proof Castellum’s asset portfolio and promote the sustainable development goals established by the UN and prioritised by the company, several challenging goals have been set. Buildings must be more energy-efficient, natural resources must be more efficiently utilised, biodiversity in urban environments must be increased, renewable energy must be improved and changing weather conditions must be taken into account. Castellum is involved in the climate plans and policies of its customers and of government agencies. It supports international treaties such as the Paris Agreement, displays leadership and to the greatest extent possible influences the industry to reduce its climate impact. Castellum is the first property company in the Nordic region to have its climate targets approved by the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi). Castellum’s target is to achieve 100% climate neutrality in its operations by 2030, thereby supporting the UN’s climate agreement and the national ambition for a fossil fuel-free Sweden. Despite the strong possibilities we see for adjusting emissions from property management (scopes 1 and 2), there are major challenges to achieving climate neutrality in Scope 3. At present, we are far from having all the solutions to becoming climate neutral by 2030. But we know that ambitious goals drive innovation.

Energy, GRI 302-1

Energy source

 

Absolute energy use, 2020

 

Renewable share

Building electricity

 

70,357

 

100%

Electricity, geothermal and cooling

 

1,586

 

100%

Electricity, direct

 

1,155

 

100%

Biogas

 

1,723

 

100%

Total fuel consumption from renewable fuels

 

74,821

 

100%

Natural gas

 

312

 

0%

Oil

 

1

 

0%

Total fuel consumption from non-renewable fuels

 

313

 

0%

District heating

 

189,382

 

94%

District cooling

 

14,903

 

95%

Total energy consumption

 

279,419

 

95%

All energy consumption is reported in megawatt-hours (MWh); to recalculate energy consumption from MWh to gigajoules (GJ), use a conversion factor of 3.6. Castellum uses no steam power.

Emissions, GRI 305-1, 305-2 and 305-3

Castellum monitors its greenhouse gas emissions annually in accordance with the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol. 2017 was chosen as the base year for Castellum’s Science Based Target of net-zero CO2 emissions by 2030. This is because it was the first year when a complete Scope 3 inventory could be carried out. For scopes 1 and 2, and for business travel, there is comparable data back to 2007.

The table below reports on the activities, assumptions and conversion factors forming the basis for reporting Castellum’s energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

Waste by type and disposal method, GRI 306-2

Castellum does not fully break down waste information by type or management method, as the company currently does not have access to this information at a detailed level. The information will be developed over the next few years in pace with our having the possibility of obtaining more complete information from our suppliers.

Complete inventory of GHG emissions

Absolute emissions are indicated in metric tons of CO2eq, and intensity in kg per square metre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020

 

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

Method for calculation1)

 

 

Absolute

 

Intensity

 

Absolute

 

Intensity

 

Absolute

 

Intensity

 

Absolute

 

Intensity

 

 

Scope 1 Includes natural gas, oil, refrigerants and fuels for company cars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct emissions

 

284

 

0.1

 

458

 

0.1

 

675

 

0.2

 

1,122

 

0.3

 

Fuel-based method

Biogenic emissions

 

339

 

0.1

 

535

 

0.1

 

664

 

0.2

 

924

 

0.2

 

Fuel-based method

Scope 2 Includes electricity, district heating and cooling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Market-based method

 

3,991

 

0.9

 

5,764

 

1.4

 

4,362

 

1.0

 

6,133

 

1.3

 

Fuel-based method

Location-based method

 

18,128

 

4.1

 

37,222

 

8.8

 

47,818

 

11.3

 

48,560

 

11.0

 

Fuel-based method

Scope 1+2 (Market-based)

 

4,275

 

1.0

 

6,222

 

1.5

 

5,037

 

1.2

 

7,255

 

1.6

 

Fuel-based method

Scope 1+2 (Location-based)

 

18,412

 

4.2

 

37,680

 

8.9

 

48,493

 

11.5

 

49,682

 

11.3

 

Fuel-based method

Scope 3 Includes all other relevant indirect emissions2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Purchased goods and services

 

274,307

 

61.8

 

266,860

 

62.8

 

273,279

 

64.6

 

322,279

 

73.6

 

Spend-based method

4. Upstream transportation and distribution

 

227

 

0.1

 

172

 

0.1

 

166

 

0.1

 

289

 

0.1

 

Spend-based method

5. Waste generated in operations

 

2,717

 

0.6

 

2,161

 

0.5

 

2,038

 

0.5

 

1,839

 

0.4

 

Spend-based method

6. Business travel

 

49

 

0.0

 

127

 

0.0

 

151

 

0.0

 

138

 

0.0

 

Distance-based method

7. Employee Commuting

 

160

 

0.0

 

166

 

0.0

 

158

 

0.0

 

156

 

0.0

 

Average-based method

8. Upstream leased assets

 

88

 

0.0

 

68

 

0.0

 

59

 

0.0

 

51

 

0.0

 

Spend-based method

13. Downstream leased assets3)

 

12,627

 

2.9

 

54

 

0.0

 

54

 

0.0

 

54

 

0.0

 

Average-based method

Biogenic emissions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scope 3

 

290,175

 

65.4

 

269,608

 

63.4

 

275,905

 

65.2

 

324,806

 

74.1

 

 

2017 was chosen as the base year for Castellum’s Science Based Target initiative, since it was the first year Castellum was able to take a full inventory of its Scope 3 GHG emissions. No exclusion of essential greenhouse gases has been made.

1.

According to GHG Protocol Corporate Value Chain Standard

2.

The following types of Scope 3 emissions are not relevant for Castellum (approved by the Science Based Target initiative): 2. Capital goods, 3. Fuel and energy-related activities, 9. Downstream transportation & distribution, 10. Processing of sold products, 11. Use of sold products, 12. End-of-life treatment of sold products, 14. Franchises, 15. Investments

3.

The emission factor has been updated to each national residual mix emission factors from the Grexel database for 2020. Our opinion is that Grexel’s individual residual emission factors better reflects the carbon emissions from electricity consumption instead of using the weighted Nordic residual emission factor by Energimarknadsinspektionen, used previous years. This does not significantly effect the full carbon footprint, less than 5%, therefore we do not update previous year or base year.

Multi-year outlook: energy, carbon emissions and water, 2016–2020

Absolute energy in MWh and CO2 in metric tons and intensity, respectively, given in kWh per square metre per year and CO2 in kilogrammes per square metre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020

 

2019

 

2018

 

2017

 

2016

 

 

Absolute

 

Intensity

 

Absolute

 

Intensity

 

Absolute

 

Intensity

 

Absolute

 

Intensity

 

Absolute

 

Intensity

Total energy consumption

 

279,419

 

75

 

316,239

 

88

 

349,014

 

97

 

343,140

 

94

 

342,918

 

98

Total energy consumption, normalised

 

326,287

 

87

 

340,645

 

95

 

371,220

 

103

 

365,927

 

100

 

362,935

 

104

1. of which actual heating

 

193,718

 

50

 

223,576

 

60

 

238,494

 

64

 

244,060

 

64

 

244,529

 

69

2. of which normalised heating

 

240,586

 

62

 

247,983

 

67

 

260,700

 

70

 

266,847

 

70

 

264,546

 

75

3. of which electricity and cooling

 

85,701

 

25

 

92,662

 

28

 

110,520

 

33

 

99,080

 

30

 

98,389

 

29

Total CO2 emissions for property management1)

 

4,275

 

1.0

 

6,222

 

1.5

 

5,037

 

1.2

 

7,255

 

1.7

 

8,355

 

1.9

of which Scope 1

 

285

 

0.1

 

458

 

0.1

 

675

 

0.2

 

1,122

 

0.3

 

608

 

0.1

of which Scope 2 (market-based)

 

3,990

 

0.9

 

5,764

 

1.4

 

4,362

 

1.0

 

6,133

 

1.4

 

7,747

 

1.8

Total water consumption

 

874,785

 

0.25

 

995,345

 

0.29

 

969,783

 

0.3

 

1,008,457

 

0.3

 

1,044,503

 

0.2

1.

This list includes all CO2 emissions from property management (i.e. scopes 1 and 2). Total energy consumption is the sum of 1 and 3. Total normalised energy use is the sum of 2 and 3.

Scope

 

Activity

 

Activity data

 

Conversion factor

Scope 1

 

Oil consumption at properties where the tenant does not have separate metering or billing of actual consumption.

 

Internal collection of statistics relating to consumption at properties heated by oil.

 

Heating oil: 0.28 tonnes CO2e/MWh
Source: GHG Protocol, GWP 2014 IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

Scope 1

 

Natural gas consumption at properties where the tenant does not have separate metering or billing of actual consumption.

 

Internal collection of statistics relating to consumption at properties heated by natural gas.

 

Natural gas: 0.203 tonnes CO2e/MWh
Source: GHG Protocol, GWP 2014 IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

Scope 1

 

Business travel with company vehicles.

 

Travel with company vehicles is based on meter readings. Greenhouse gas emissions are based on distance covered and on combined-cycle fuel consumption for each vehicle.

 

Gasoline: 0.0002375 tonnes CO2e/km
Diesel: 0.0002798 tonnes CO2e/km
Biofuel: 0 tonnes CO2e/km
CNG: 0.0000505 tonnes CO2e/km
Electric hybrid: 0.00005 tonnes CO2e/km
Electric car: 0 tonnes CO2e/km
Source: GHG Protocol, GWP 2014 IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

Scope 1

 

Refrigerants

 

Refrigerant emission data is collected from the mandatory refrigerant report of each respective property.

 

Statistics from Svenska Kyl & Värmepumpsföreningen. The data is reported in connection with the Fluorinated Greenhouse Gas regulation, EU/517/2014, and appurtenant Swedish legislation, which is declared based on applicable practices.

Scope 2

 

Consumption of electricity in properties where the tenant does not have separate measurement or invoicing of actual consumption.

 

Internal collection of statistics for properties where Castellum is responsible for electricity use.

 

Origin-labelled renewable electricity: 0 g CO2e/MWh Residual mix: Sweden: 0.05022 tonnes CO2e/MWh
Denmark 0.46521 tonnes CO2e/MWh
Finland 0.31013 tonnes CO2e/MWh
Source: Grexel

Scope 2

 

Consumption of district heating and district cooling in properties where the tenant does not have separate measurement or invoicing of actual consumption.

 

Internal collection of statistics for properties where Castellum is responsible for district heating and district cooling. District heating consumption is adjusted based on SMHI degree days and vacancy rate.

 

Statistics from respective district heating providers.1)

Scope 3

 

Business travel, taxi.

 

The majority of the data from suppliers and manual retrieval.

 

0.000147 tonnes CO2e/km
Source: GHG Protocol, GWP 2014 IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

Scope 3

 

Business travel, air.

 

The majority of the data from suppliers and manual retrieval.

 

Nordic region: 0.000171 tonnes CO2e/km
Europe: 0.000092 tonnes CO2e/km
World: 0.000083 tonnes CO2e/km
Source: GHG Protocol, GWP 2014 IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

Scope 3

 

Business travel, train.

 

The majority of the data from suppliers.

 

0.0000002 tonnes CO2e/km
Source: SJ

Scope 3

 

Business travel, private vehicles.

 

Internal monitoring of kilometres driven on business with private vehicles.

 

0.000147 tonnes CO2e/km
Source: GHG Protocol, GWP 2014 IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

Scope 3

 

Employee commutes.

 

Employee commutes in km are estimated based on data from Transport Analysis combined with emission factors from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

 

Source: Swedish EPA and Transport Analysis

Scope 3

 

Assets leased downstream.

 

Calculated from a template of tenants’ energy use.

 

Residual mix:
Sweden: 0.05022 tonnes CO2e/MWh
Denmark 0.46521 tonnes CO2e/MWh
Finland 0.31013 tonnes CO2e/MWh
Source: BELOK, Grexel

Scope 3

 

Other GHG emissions.

 

The carbon footprint is calculated based on how much is spent on suppliers from various industry sectors (e.g. transportation, travel, consultants, etc.). Emissions are then calculated using sector data from the World Input Output Database (WIOD) in accordance with the recommendations of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol for a Scope 3 screening.

 

Source: World Input Output Database (WIOD) 2013

1.

Since the district heating suppliers’ conversion factor for the preceding year (2020) was only calculated in 2021, the conversion factor for 2019 is used for emissions linked to traditional district heating.